`托福口语`新托福口语Task 6难点解析及答题技

作者:王静老师来源:朗阁教育时间:2018-01-22 11:39:33.000

摘要:

 

新托福口语考试一共有6道题目,分为两种形式:独立型和综合型。今天我们要探讨的是口语的第六题,即综合型题目里的*后一道。不同于*和第二道题目的纯口语回答,也不同于综合型题目中第三和第四道题目里的听读结合,第六题要求考生先听一篇关于某话题的学术讲座,然后概括从讲座中获取的信息,通常是某个科学概念或者现象。今天我们将结合真题,就第六道题的考点及答题要点进行深入的探讨。

 

一、考察方向

新托福口语的第六道题,通常被考生视为难度*大的一道,就是因为它的考察形式--总结听到的1-2分钟的学术讲座。难点体现在两个方面:1. 纯粹的听力内容使听力较弱的考生无所适从;2. 学术讲座的专业性太强,如果考生不熟悉讲座的方向,会听得云里雾里。朗阁海外考试研究中心分析认为其实此题也是有章可循的:讲座通常围绕一个学术概念展开,然后给出此概念的定义,并运用具体的例子来对此概念进行补充,或给出实验的过程来论证此科学概念的科学性;或者,会围绕着一个科学现象展开,继而给出产生此现象的原因以及影响。因此,常见的*问方式如下:

1. Using points and examples from the talk, explain the two definitions of money presented by the professor.

2. Using points and examples from the talk, explain the two types of motivation.

3. Using the examples from the talk, explain how persuasive strategies are used in advertising.

4. Using the research described by the professor, explain what scientists have learned about the mathematical abilities of babies.

 

前两种*问方法常出现在概念--定义型的讲座中,而后两种*问方法常出先在实验型的讲座中。备考的考生须知,在听讲座的过程中,是看不到问题的。在讲座结束后,屏幕上会显示如上的问题,同时会有narrator将问题读出,以便考生熟悉题目中关键词的读音。

 

二、评分标准

那么*是如何评分的呢?《新托福口语考试官方指南》指出第六题的评分标准是:考生需要充分展示自己的语言表达(发音)和语言运用(语法及词汇)能力,能完整地回答问题。许多考生在规定时间内无法完成回答,因为他们在概念总结上花费了太多的时间。若回答遗漏关键信息没有对重要信息展开论述,那么评分人会只给2分。记住,第六题想要得*,考生的回答要持续(很少或者没有不恰当的停顿)并且连贯(逻辑流畅),容易使人理解。

 

三、讲座内容

Task 6的讲座通常为90-120秒,有些话题可能持续的时间更长会超过2分钟。在讲座中,教授通常会先介绍一个概念或现象,然后一般情况下,会用两个例子或者两个下级分类来进行深入的解释。而有关于一个实验过程的讲座可能会描述一个过程的两个步骤。在讲述一件事件的讲座中,教授可能会描述一个事件的前因后果。在关于某科学社会理论的讲座中,教授则会举出一些例子来说明这一理论在日常生活中起的作用及对人们日常生活产生的影响。

 

由于第六道题目是纯粹的听力讲座而没有阅读材料,那么讲座中的主要内容通常情况下是会在*句话中体现出来的。有时候教授会非常直接明显地点明话题,例如:Today we’ll talk about how companies determine the initial prices for their products. 然后教授会讲述主要概念涉及的过程或者基本原理及举例。

 

讲座结束后,考生将听到并在电脑屏幕上看到题目。如上文所示,第六题的题目会要求考生解释讲座所讨论的核心概念。由于此部分没有阅读内容,相较于Task 3Task 4, 考生只有20秒的准备时间,在此期间,考生可依据自己的笔记进行思考和准备。在听到*示声后,考生将有60秒的时间作答。

 

综上所述,在新托福口语的听力中,会存在非常明显的规律,在考生听懂大方向的情况下,不难将讲座的outline找出。让我们来看一篇新托福TPO真题。

So, let’s talk about money. What is money? Well, typically people think of coins and paper “bills” as money... but that’s using a somewhat narrow definition of the term.

 

A broad definition is this: money is anything that people can use to make purchases with. Since many things can be used to make purchases, money can have many different forms. Certainly, coins and bills are one form of money. People exchange ods and services for coins or paper bills, and they use this money ... these bills ... to obtain other ods and services. For example, you might give a taxi driver five dollars to purchase a ride in his taxi. And he in turn gives the five dollars to a farmer to buy some vegetables...

 

But, as I said, coins and bills aren’t the only form of money under this broad definition. Some societies make use of a barter system. Basically, in a barter system people exchange ods and services directly for other ods and services. The taxi driver, for example, might give a ride to a farmer in exchange for some vegetables. Since the vegetables are used to pay for a service, by our broad definition the vegetables are used in barter as a form of money.

 

Now, as I mentioned, there’s also a second ... a narrower definition of money. In the United States only coins and bills are legal tender—meaning that by law, a seller must accept them as payment. The taxi driver must accept coins or bills as payment for a taxi ride. OK? But in the U.S., the taxi driver is not required to accept vegetables in exchange for a ride. So a narrower definition of money might be whatever is legal tender in a society, whatever has to be accepted as payment.

 

Using points and examples from the talk, explain the two definitions of money presented by the professor.

 

在此讲座中,教授在*句话中就直接地指出讲座的中心内容—Money, 随后的内容围绕着对Money的定义展开。整个讲座讲述了Money的两种定义,一种是广义的,一种是狭义的。教授首先讲述了广义的钱的定义,并以出租车和菜农的两个具体的例子来解释广义钱的定义内容。随后讲述了狭义的钱的定义,同样,在给出了定义之后,教授依然用出租车和菜农的例子来进行解释。

 

有了这样的一个outline,考生需要*取出来的关键内容为:

-- A broad definition is this: money is anything that people can use to make purchases with.

-- Coins and bills are one form of money.

-- In a barter system people exchange ods and services directly for other ods and services.

-- So a narrower definition of money might be whatever is legal tender in a society, whatever has to be accepted as payment.

-- In the United States only coins and bills are legal tender

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