提一个简单的问题：什么是lecture？回答：演讲。它翻译成中文是演讲，牛津说：lecture is a talk that is given to a group of people to teach them about a particular subject， often as part of a university or college course. 我们的希望出来了，所有的lecture本来就是讲述一个学生不知道的知识点，通过老师的嘴巴来解释让你能明白这个知识点，这才是lecture。共同的一个pattern就是让听者从不懂到懂的一个过程。
演绎法 deductive method
In many ways， Mary is a model student. Mary studies hard and is always there to help her classmates with their homework. In her spare time， she does volunteering in a community center on a regular basis. She also devotes her time to helping her mother with house chores.
归纳法 inductive method
Mary studies hard and is always there to help her classmates with their homework. In her spare time， she does volunteering in a community center on a regular basis. She also devotes her time to helping her mother with house chores. In many ways， Mary is a model student.
Topic sentence + supporting details，一个都不会少，这样才能让人听的明白。
7. What does the professor say about Frantzen’s painting of a farm scene？
A. It resembles a photograph.
B. It may be Frantzen’s best-know painting.
C. It was painted in the Impressionist style.
D. It was painted while Frantzen lived abroad
Listening Script 1 Contemporary art
Narrator： Listen to part of a lecture in a contemporary art class.
od. So when you to the exhibit， I really want you to take a close look at a certain painting.
It’s a farm scene. And you will see it right as you enter the gallery. The reason I think this painting is so important is that it stresses the impressionist aspect of Frantzen’s style（Topic sentence）。 It’s an outdoor scene， an everyday scene. It’s kind of bleak， which you can really see those broad brushstrokes and the blurry lines. The colors aren’t quite realistic. The sky is kind of， well， in a natural… pinkish yellow. And the fence in the foreground is blue， but somehow the overall scene gives an impression of a cold， bleak， winter day on a farm. （supporting details） So that’s the impressionist side of her work.
答案C正解就是topic sentence，所有的supporting details都是在解释该painting的impressionism。
13. Not long a， the Sahara had a different climate. What evidence does the professor mention to support this？
Click on three answers
A. ancient pollen
B. bones from large animals
C. rock paintings
D. agriculture in ancient Egypt
E. underground water
Listening Script 4
Narrator： Listen to part of a lecture in an earth science class.
Okay， in principal they could， Karl. But the rock paintings aren’t the only evidence. Beneath the Sahara are huge aquifers， basically a sea of fresh water， that’s perhaps a million years old filtered through rock layers. And…er…and then there is fossilized pollen， from low shrubs and grasses that once grew in the Sahara. In fact these plants still grow， er…but hundreds of miles away， in more vegetated areas. （supporting details）。 Anyway， it’s this fossilized pollen along with the aquifers and the rock paintings， these three things are all evidence that the Sahara was once much greener than it is today（Topic sentence）， that there were hippos and probably elephants and giraffes and so on.
答案ACE。正解依然是topic sentence，值得高兴的是三个答案中ancient pollen和underground water文中给出了很好的解释，三者之间存在清晰的并列关系。
11. What does DNA evidence indicate about relationships among whales？
A. All modern whales descend from sperm whales
B. Differences among toothed whales are less significant that was previously thought
C. Not all toothed whales are closely related
D. Sperm whale are more closely related to killer whales than was previously thought
Listening Script 1
Narrator：Listen to part of a Lecture in a Marine Biology Class
Err… and there have been some other interesting findings from DNA research. For a long time， we assumed that all whales that had teeth including sperm whales and killer whales were closely related to one another. And the same for the toothless whales， like the blue whale and other baleen whales， we assumed that they be closely related （supporting details）。 But recent DNA studies suggest that that’s not the case at all
答案C正解就是topic sentence，该题学生做时觉得困难，这个是归纳，先有supporting details推出topic sentence。
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