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【朗阁教育】托福阅读事实信息题大解析

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018/1/22 11:38:11
  • 编辑:朗阁教育

托福阅读事实信息题大解析

回顾托福阅读的所有题型,其中有2种题型占据的比例最高----“词汇题”和“事实信息题”,前者每一场考试大约考察10-12题左右,而后者大约也会考察12题左右。因此,从每一场考试的39-42题总量上来看,这两种题型就占据了半壁江山。从难度系数上来看事实信息题的难度明显高于词汇题。那么,今天笔者打算简单谈一谈该题型的解决方法。

1

提问方式

 

·         Accordingto paragraph… which of the following statements is true of / concerned with /related to X?

·         例:According toparagraph 1, what was true of the Sahara region around 6,000 B.C.? (TPO 28 Early Saharan Pastoralists)

·         Accordingto paragraph… why / how / what….?

·         例:According to paragraph 1, why is playdifficult to define? (TPO30 Role of Play in Development)

 

分析:通过以上两种不同提问方式可以总结出该题型有以下几个特点:

1). 该题型是就某段话当中的某个细节信息(即提问方式1中的X)进行提问。

2). 该题型可以围绕该细节信息的不同方面进行提问,通过特殊疑问词which;what; why; how可以看出。

3). 由于题干中未出现infer;suggest; indicate等字样,所以该题型旨在考察文本信息的字面含义,无需考生进行文本的隐含意推理。

 

2

解题步骤

Step 1: 读题干,找出定位词

注意:如果是提问方式1, 那么定位词则是位于介词of/with/ to后面的信息。

如果是提问方式2, 那么定位词一般是名词,并且是非主题性的名词(当然定位词不一定只能找一个,一般可以找2到3个,因为定位词越多相对定位的位置也会越精确。)

例:

 

Accordingto paragraph 2, which of the following presents a particular challenge toresearchers who study play behavior in animals?(TPO30 Role of Play in Development)

 

分析:通过提问方式类似于第1种提问方式,其实题干可以改写成whichof the following statements is true of the challenge to researchers who… 因此,定位词应该是位于介词of后面的challenge toresearchers。至于后面的playbehavior就不需要了,因为它属于通篇的主题词。

 

Accordingto paragraph 4, how did the Catholic Church react to the introduction ofmechanical clocks? (TPO 30 The Inventionof Mechanical Clock)

 

分析:通过提问方式属于第2种提问方式,因此考生们应该在题干中找出名词部分,考生们可以看到两组名词:CatholicChurch和MechanicalClocks, 并且这两组词都是我们所需要的定位词。

 

Paragraph5 answers which of the following questions about mechanical clocks. (TPO 30 The Invention of Mechanical Clock)

 

分析:通过题干找出题干中唯一疑似的定位词组Mechanical Clocks, 但是却发现整篇文章都在讨论MechanicalClocks。这种类型的提问方式是考生们最怕看到的,因为定位词无效。此刻建议考生们可以反过来先读选项,然后根据选项中的定位词回读段落寻找答案。

 

Step 2: 通过题干中定位词回原文进行定位。

注意:在定位的过程中考生们可能会遇到以下2个问题:

问题1:定位词在原文中可能是非原文原词(如果是专有名词一般在原文中就是原文原词,但如果是普通名词则有可能是非原文原词)。

例1:定位词为原文原词的情况

 

Paragraph 1: Evolutionary biologists believe thatspeciation, the formation of a new species, often begins when some kind ofphysical barrier arises and divides a population of a single species intoseparate subpopulations. Physical separation between subpopulations promotesthe formation of new species because once the members of one subpopulation canno longer mate with members of another subpopulation, they cannot exchangevariant genes that arise in one of the subpopulations. In the absences of geneflow between the subpopulations, genetic differences between the groups beginto accumulate. Eventually the subpopulations become so genetically distinctthat they cannot interbreed even if the physical barriers between them wereremoved. At this point the subpopulations have evolved into distinct species.This route to speciationis known as allopatry(“alio-” means “different”,and “patria” means “homeland”).(TPO31 Speciationin Geographically Isolated Populations

Q: According to paragraph 1, allopatric speciation involveswhich of the following?

 

分析:此题干中的定位词为allopatric speciation, 为专有名词,在原文中为原文原词,即最后一句话为定位句。

 

例2:定位词为非原文原词的情况

 

Paragraph 2: Playappears to be a developmental characteristic of animals with fairlysophisticated nervous systems, mainly birds and mammals. Play has been studiedmost extensively in primates and canids (dogs). Exactly why animals play isstill a matter debated in the research literature, and the reasons may not bethe same for every species that plays. Determining the functions of play is difficultbecause the functions may be long-term, with beneficial effects not showing upuntil the animal's adulthood. (TPO30 Role of Play in Development)

According toparagraph 2, which of the following presents a particular challenge toresearchers who study play behavior in animals?

O   The delay between activities and the benefitsthe animal derives from them.

O   The difficulty in determining which animalspecies play and which do not.

O   The fact that for most animals, there is noclear transition from youth to full adulthood.

O   The lack of research on the play behavior ofanimals other than canids and primates.

 

分析:此题干中的定位词为challenge & researchers, 在原文中考生们无法找到这两个定位词,但是可以找到challenge的同义替换形式difficult, 因此该句即是我们所需要的定位句。

 

问题2:定位词在原文中出现不止一次。


 

 

Paragraph 7: Occasionally, a sequence offossil-rich layers of rock permits a comprehensive look at one type of organismover a long period of time. For example, Peter Sheldon's studies of trilobites,a now extinct marine animal with a segmented body, offer a detailed glimpseinto three million years of evolution in one marine environment. In that study,each of eight different trilobite species was observed to undergo agradual change in the number of segm

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