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【朗阁教育】雅思阅读之选择题选项类型全面分析

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018/1/22 11:38:06
  • 编辑:朗阁教育

雅思阅读之选择题选项类型全面分析

选择题在雅思阅读中出题频率虽然没有判断题那么高,但依然是雅思阅读中的主流题型,在2015年整年和2016年截止到目前为止的阅读考试中,选择题约占20%的比重,所以也是考生不容小觑的一项题型。选择题整体难度中等,但是陷阱较多,干扰项很多,考生会在选项之间来回纠结,拿不定主意,导致时间浪费,错误率高。经过深入研究,朗阁海外考试研究中心对选择题的选项类型进行了细分和全方面解析,在下文中将从正确项、错误项、未提及项、和干扰项四个方面为考生们一一解析,希望能够帮助考生在做题中更清晰地明白考点,辨别干扰项,从而选出正确答案。
 
1正确项
正确项即正确答案,对于正确项的定义是,在文中有定位点,并且替换正确,这跟判断题中的TRUE/YES很像。但是和判断题有区别的是,选择题的定位句往往不止一句,许多时候需要结合好几句话理解。值得注意的是,考生不能主观臆断答案,感觉对了就选了,一定要找到准确的定位点。
 
1. 选项是原文一两句话的改写
例:剑6 Test 3 Passage 1 第11题
题目:In Tarkovsky’s opinion, the attractionof the cinema is that it
A. aims to impress its audience
B. tellsstories better than books
C. illustratesthe passing of time
D. describesfamiliar events
 
分析:这道题的一个难点在于定位,根据人名定位词Tarkovsky缩小范围为C段和D段,根据定位词“the attraction of the cinema”确定到D段对应定位词“the key to that magic”。找到定位句:
“ForTarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamicimage of the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply theexistence of time, while time in a novel passed at the whim of the reader. Butin cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.”
根据这两句话我们可以看到,电影的魅力主要在于能够真正捕捉时间客观真实的流动,和C选项替换改写过后意思一致。
 
2. 选项是原文某段的归纳总结
归纳总结是指原文句子较长较多,选项对于原文进行上下文的归纳。在剑10, 剑11真题中,选择题陷阱减少,但是归纳总结增多,长难句很多,主要考察考生对于长难句的理解。所以考生要在平时的阅读训练中,提高自己长难句的理解能力,学会抓住句子主干,快速把握句子的意思。
 
例:剑10 Test 2 Passage 3 第32题
题目:The writer mentions London’s NationalGallery to illustrate
A. theundesirable cost to a nation of maintaining a huge collection of art.
B. theconflict that may arise in society between financial and artistic values.
C. thenegative effect a museum can have on visitors’ opinions of themselves.
D. the need toput individual well-being above  large-scaleartistic schemes.
 
原文第六段中间部分:In addition, amajor collection like that of London’s National Gallery is housed in numerousrooms, each with dozens of works, any one of which is likely to be worth morethan all the average visitor possesses. In a society that judges the personalstatus of the individual so much by their material worth, it is thereforedifficult not to be impressed by one’s own relative ‘worthlessness’ in such anenvironment.
 
分析:这道题定位不难,难点在于原文句子比较晦涩,从句又多,导致比较难理解。考生在阅读时,可以把原句的修饰词、插入语等都去掉,只留下句子最主干的部分。
我们可以把第一句话简化成这样:“a major collection of London’s National Gallery is worth more than all the average visitor possesses”, 即伦敦国家美术馆的收藏品的价值要比参观者所有的财产加起来还要多。
第二句话可以简化成:“In a societythat judges the status of the individual by their material worth, they areimpressed by one’s own ‘worthlessness’ in such an environment.” 意思就是在一个凭借物质价值来评判个人地位的社会,游客很容易在这样的环境中感觉到自己没有价值。
最终把两句话的意思概括起来,对应C选项“博物馆会对游客如何看待自己产生消极影响”。
 
2错误项
错误项是指在原文中有定位点,但是意思跟原文完全矛盾的项,类似于判断题的FALSE,考生还是比较容易辨别的,考生可以利用错误项,用排除法做题。
例:剑7 Test 4 Passage 3 第29题
题目:Researchers discovered that high noiselevel are not likely to interfere with the
A. successfulperformance of a single task.
B. tasks ofpilots or air traffic controllers.
C. ability torepeat numbers while tracking moving lines.
D. ability tomonitor three dials at once.
 
原文:But there are limits to adaptation andloud noise becomes more troublesome if the person is required to concentrate onmore than one task. For example, high noise levels interfered with theperformance of subjects who were required to monitor three dials at a time, atask not unlike that of an airplane pilot or an air-traffic controller.Similarly, noise did not affect a subject’s ability to track a moving line witha steering wheel, but it did interfere with the subject’s ability to repeatnumbers while tracking.
 
分析:题干问的是噪音不会影响的事情,我们找到定位句,发现原文这样的句子,“For example, high noise levels interfered with the performance ofsubjects who were required to monitor three dials at a time,a task notunlike that of an airplane pilot or an air-traffic controller”, 即噪音会影响同时操作三个方向盘的人,会影响类似飞行员和航空中心那样的任务,对应B和D选项的内容,由此可以把B和D选项排除。继续往下看到原文,“Similarly, noise did not affect a subject’s ability to track a moving line with asteering wheel, but it did interfere with the subject’s ability to repeat numbers whiletracking.” 可以看出噪音会影响人边驾驶边数数的能力,对应C选项排除。其他所有选项都已排除,最终只剩下A选项。
 
 
3未提及项
未提及项相当于判断题中的NOT GIVEN, 分为完全未提及项和部分提及项。
1. 完全未提及项
完全未提及项即该选项在原文中完全没有对应的定位点,在原文中找不到依据。这种情况是比较好判别的,考生可以直接排除。
 
2. 部分提及项
部分提及项是指选项中的关键词在原文中有对应定位点,但是不存在选项给出的关系,不能推理出选项的意思。由于做题时间紧迫,考生往往会没有仔细看整个选项的意思,没有把选项和原文仔细比对,只根据选项中的部分关键词,就直接选了,导致错选。
 
例:剑9 Test2 Passage3 第29题
题目:According to the writer, the brain works effectively because
A. it uses the eyes quickly.
B. it interprets data logically.
C. it generates its own energy.
D. it relies on previous events.
 
原文:Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source ofinformation…to make sense of what it is seeing. This happens all the time. Thebrain takes shortcuts that works so well we are hardly ever aware of them.
 
分析:除了正确答案,这道题每个选项都有陷阱,每个选项都有考生会选。首先根据题干定位到原文的第3段,看到第二句,“It (the brain) has a fixedenergy budget, about the same as a 40 watt light bulb, so it has evolved to workas efficiently as possible.” 有的同学看到关键词energy, 再看到workefficiently, 没有仔细思考句子的意思,直接就选了C。其实原文这句话的意思是,因为大脑能量有限,所以它变得工作得非常高效,跟C选项的“大脑会自己生产能量”是矛盾的,所以C是错误项。
 
接着往下读,看到第四句,“For example, when confronted withinformation streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this informationin the quickest way possible.” 这里出现了关键词eyes, interpret,和quickly, 与A和B呼应,但是原文

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