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托福课堂 ▏如何读懂托福阅读长难句?

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018/1/22 11:38:15
  • 编辑:朗阁教育

如何读懂托福阅读长难句?

如果把托福的文章比喻成一座建筑物,“词汇”便是“砖块”,“句子”便是“梁柱”。厦门朗阁教育对于一座建筑物而言少了一两块砖块并不会造成其倒塌,那么对于一篇文章而言某些单词没看懂也并不影响对于整个篇章的理解;而作为建筑物的支撑部分,梁柱却会影响该建筑物的稳定性,那么被比作梁柱的句子对于理解一篇文章而言是至关重要的,无法理解长难句会让考生首先降低阅读速度,其次影响篇章理解,最后最致命的影响是相关题型的解决----“句子简化题”,“事实信息题”,“推理题”,因为这三种题型都是在直接或间接地考察学生对于长难句的理解能力。本文中笔者将从这三种题型的角度讨论如何解读长难句。

01

句子简化题中的长难句----“先见森林,后见树木

 

“森林”代表的是该句话的“结构”,“先见森林”即考生首先应该关注的是该句话最核心的主干;“树木”代表的是该句话具体的“词汇”,那么“后见树木”指考生应该在了解主干之后才关注词汇,并且只是一些key words.

 

<1>因果结构

例题1 (OG: Desert Formation):

 

Theextreme seriousness of desertification results from the vast areas of land andthe tremendous numbers of people affected, as well as from the great difficultyof reversing or even slowing the process.

 

10. Which of the sentences below best expresses theessential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?Incorrect choices changethe meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. Desertification is a significant problem because it isso hard to reverse and affects large areas of land and great numbers of people.

B. Slowing down the process of desertification isdifficult because of population growth that has spread over large areas ofland.

C. The spread of deserts is considered a very seriousproblem that can be solved only if large numbers of people in various countriesare involved in the effort.

D. Desertification is extremely hard to reverse unlessthe population is reduced in the vast areas affected.

 

解题步骤:

1. 观察题干,发现表示隐形因果的短语result from

2. 浏览选项,发现A和B选项含有因果关系

3. 分析原句:原句中“”:1). 大量受到影响的土地vast areas of land; 2). 大量受到影响的人口tremendous numbers of people;3).很难去减慢或者颠覆沙漠化过程reverse or slow the process; 原句中“”:沙漠化是一个严重serious的问题;分析A选项:“”:1). reverse process; 2). affect large areas of land; 3).affect great numbers of people; “”:沙漠化是一个significant的问题

 

<2>让步转折结构

例题2 (TPO 17: Animal Signals in the Rain Forest):

 

In thegreen-to yellow lighting conditions of the lowest levels of the forest, yellowand green would be the brightest colors, but when an animal is signaling, thesecolors would not be very visible if the animal was sitting in an area with ayellowish or greenish background.

 

7. Which of the sentences below best expresses theessential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices changethe meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. When an animal is signaling in an area with green-toyellow lighting condition, its signal will not be visible if the background isbrightly lit.

B. In the lowest levels of the forest, an animal'ssignals are not easily seen unless there is a yellowish or greenish background.

C. In the green-to-yellow lighting conditions at thelowest levels of the forest, only signals that are themselves green or yellowwill be bright enough to be seen in most areas.

D. Although green and yellow would be the brightestcolors near the forest floor,these colors would make poor signals whenever theforest background was also in the green-to-yellow range.

 

解题步骤:

1. 分析题干,发现表转折的逻辑关系词but; 前半句“yellow and green会是最亮的颜色在低层森林中”;后半句“但是如果动物所处的background是yellow or greenish, 那么动物发出该种颜色的信号将不明显”

2. 分析选项:只有D选项含有表让步转折的逻辑词although,进而分析句意:前半句:“虽然green and yellow在森林底层颜色最亮”;后半句:“在环境也是green to yellow的情况下,这些颜色将是poor signals”

3. 原句与选项在句子的结构上符合:转折结构;在语义上符合:lowest level of the forest = forest floor, Notvery visible = poor signals

 

<3>比较结构

例题3 (TPO 17: Animal Signals in the Rain Forest):

 

In thesecond case, pollinators (insects, birds) obtain food from the flowering plant,and the plant has its pollen distributed and seeds dispersed much moreefficiently than they would be if they were carried by the wind only.

 

9. Which of the sentences below best expresses theessential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices changethe meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. The relationship between flowering plants andpollinators provides pollinators with food and flowers with efficientreproduction.

B. In some cases birds obtain food from the seeds thatare dispersed in the wind.

C. The wind not only helps the flowers distribute theirseeds but enables birds to find more food.

D. Animals and insects are more effective in distributingpollen and seeds than the wind.


 

对于plant来说,pollinator(insects & birds)要比windmore efficiently地帮助其distribute pollen and disperse seeds, 属于典型的比较关系
 

2. 分析选项,首先只有D选项含有比较关系,具体来看:animals & insects要比windmore effectively地去distribute pollen and seeds

3. 原句与选项在句子的结构上符合比较结构,语义上符合

02

事实信息题中的长难句----“众里寻他千百度,所考信息在一处”

 

与句子简化题中所考的长难句不同(主要考察考生是否能把握住句子的主干信息),事实信息题的出题点针对的有可能只是该长难句的某一处细节信息。因此,考生针对这两种不同的题型,解读长难句的视角也应该有所不同。

 

例题1(OG: Desert Formation):

These regions are especially likely to

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