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【朗阁教育】探索雅思写作中的词汇搭配问题

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018/1/22 11:38:05
  • 编辑:朗阁教育

探索雅思写作中的词汇搭配问题

为什么很多学生明明词汇量还可以,做阅读听力基本不成问题,但作文依然没法提高?笔者认为原因除了观点逻辑方面欠缺以外,如何做到地道的英语表达也是亟待解决的一个问题。而在表达当中,对于词汇的选择使用则是广大考生的关注点之一。在这一点上,很多人都抱有这样的错误心态:只要词用得越“高大上”考官就越喜欢,从而分数就越高。其实不然。我们总结一下雅思写作评分标准对词汇一项的要求后会发现写作中用词最重要的要抓住两点:有效(effective)和准确(precise)。很多时候,往往你所认为的“高冷”单词,用在某个语境当中会显得非常不适宜不自然甚至不正确,反而给考官留下了不好的印象。这就是为什么那些貌似词汇量很大的考生依然写不出好的文章。

我们来看一个例子:

If schools administered with anyteachers, disorder and lawlessness would arise.

这句话中看起来似乎用了如划线部分这样的“高端词”,但实则只是让整个表达变得非常别扭不自然。我们修正一下,变为If schools were run without teachers, the behaviorof pupils would be much worse. 可以看到用词难度下降了很多,但是整个句子变得清新自然从而更加准确有效。所以考生若想提高自身的英语表达就该先端正三观,不要在追求“难词”这条歧途上继续走下去。

 

那究竟应该如何提高写作的用词水平呢?我认为学会单词的搭配(collocation)才是王道。搭配即单词间的自然惯用组合,学好搭配能帮助我们更自然准确地去用英语交流写作。比如我们都知道“关注”叫做pay attention, 如果有人说“give attention”自然别人也能听懂,但这样的表达就非常不自然不地道。再说说上面的例子,“管理学校”最地道的搭配表达就是run a school, 如果用administrate就显得非常做作不自然。因此,若想在真正意义上用好自己已知的词汇来提高表达,我们就应该在平时写作说话中不断积累英语词汇的搭配。在接下来的文章中,笔者会列举若干例子来示范如何使用正确的搭配来改善你的写作或口语表达。

 

1. 经常锻炼能改善人们的身体健康

Often exercise can improve people’s bodyhealth.

Taking exercise regularly can improvepeople’s physical health.

 

2. 家长和老师应该减少孩子看电视的时间

Parents and teachers should reducechildren's time of watching TV

Parents and teachers should reducechildren's screen time

 

3. 处理生活垃圾是当地政府的一项重要任务

误:Dealing with living rubbish is an important task for local governments

正:Disposal of household waste is an important task for local governments

 

4. 政府应该给出处理环境问题的解决方法

误:Governments should give a solution to deal with the environmentalproblem.

正:Governments should find a solution to the environmentalproblem.

Find a solution to sth是固定搭配,而且没有solution to do这种表达

 

5. 艺术不是学校的主科

误:Arts is not the core curriculum at school

正:The arts is not among the core subject areas at school

 

6. 不明朗的经济前景导致了失业率的提高

误:Ambiguous economic future leads to the riseon unemployment

正:Uncertain economic outlook leads to the riseon unemployment

Ambiguous指含义意思的不明确模糊

 

7. 高昂的费用是人们质疑奥运会承办的一个原因

误:Lavish spending is one of the reasons why people doubthosting Olympic Games.

正:High spending is one of the reasons why people doubthosting Olympic Games.

Lavish指慷慨或奢侈,不和spending或cost搭配

 

8. 空运会产生很多温室气体

误:Air transportation will create many greenhouse gases.

正:Air freight will create many greenhouse gases.

 

9. 有很大朋友圈的人通常会更快乐

误:People with a large community of friends are morelikely to be happy.

正:People with a large circle of friends are more likelyto be happy.

 

10. 只犯小罪就受到严厉的惩罚是不公平的

误:It is unfair to be punished strictly for makinglittle crimes.

正:It is unfair to be punished stiffly for committingminor offences.

 

11. 如今人们越来越善于使用高科技

误:People have increasingly been good at using hightechnology.

正:People have increasingly been skilled at harnessing hightechnology.

 

12. 最新的设计正在改变我们的日常生活。

误:The latest design is changing our daily lives.

正:New cutting-edge design is transforming our daily lives.

 

13. 拆除那些废弃的大楼能改善城市外观

误:Destroying those abandoned buildings can improve the appearance of the city.

正:Demolishing those derelict buildings can improve city’s image.

 

14. 发展交通网络能改善道路拥挤问题

误:Developing transport webs can improve the problemof traffic jam.

正:Developing transport networks can ease the problemof congested roads.

 

15. 很多问题影响着贫困家庭

误:There are many issues affecting poor families.

正:There are many issues affecting low-income/less well-offfamilies

 

16. 政府应该给贫困家庭提供便宜的住房。

误:The government should provide poor families with cheaperhouses.

正:The government should provide low-income/less well-offfamilies with affordable housing.

 

17. 政府应该改善贫困落后地区的生活水平。

误:Government should improve the living standard in poorregions

正:Government should improve the living standard in run-downareas

Run-down意为“条件非常差,非常落后”

 

18. 采取严厉的措施来打击犯罪

误:To take strict measures to strike crime

正:To take draconian measures to crack down crime

 

19. Give some suggestions

Make some suggestions

Give a contribution to

Make a contribution to

 

20. 用正确的搭配来表示“停止或结束”

停止军事行动 put a halt to military action

停止结束会议 bring the meeting to a close

制止坏行为 put a stop to bad behavior

终止合同 terminate the contract

停止政策 abandon the policy

 

21. very的替换词及固定搭配

highly educated; highly recommend

strongly influence

greatly appreciate; greatly influence

completely different; completely dependent

deeply offensive

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