(1). 指代词(they,it, them)必然有所指代；指代词(this, these, their,other, another, such)后面若有名词短语，则向前寻找此名词短语或其同义改写。
Paragraph 4: Regularly flowing rivers andstreams that originate within arid lands are known as "endogenous."These are generally fed by groundwater springs, and many issue from limestonemassifs, such as the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Basaltic rocks also supportsprings, notably at the Jabal Al-Arab on the Jordan-Syria border. ■Endogenous rivers often do not reach the sea but draininto inland basins, where the water evaporates or is lost in the ground. ■Most desert streambeds are normally dry, but they occasionallyreceive large flows of water and sediment.■
Paragraph 5: Deserts contain large amounts ofgroundwater when compared to the amounts they hold in surface stores such aslakes and rivers. ■But only a small fraction of groundwaterenters the hydrological cycle—feeding the flows of streams, maintaining lakelevels, and being recharged (or refilled) through surface flows and rainwater. (TPO16 Water in the Desert)
12. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentencecould be added to the passage.
Thesesudden floods provide important water supplies but can also be highlydestructive.
Wherewould the sentence best fit?
1. 分析黑体句，找到其中的线索词即为thesesudden floods, 则要插入的方块前面必定要出现名词短语suddenfloods或是其同义改写。
3.在第三个方块前面出现了largeflows of water and sediment（巨大的水流和沉积物），即为suddenfloods的同义替换，所以答案应当是第三个黑方块的位置。
Paragraph 4: One of the outer planets, Saturn, has adensity of only 0.7 that of water, which means that Saturn would float inwater. Variations in the composition of the planets are largely responsible forthe density differences. ■The substances that make up both groups ofplanets are divided into three groups—gases, rocks, and ices—based on theirmelting points. ■The terrestrial planets are mostly rocks:dense rocky and metallic material, with minor amounts of gases. ■The Jovian planets, on the other hand, contain a largepercentage of the gases hydrogen and helium, with varying amounts of ices:mostly water, ammonia, and methane ices. ■ (TPO 16 Planets in Our Solar System)
12. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to thepassage.
Thisexplains their relatively low densities.
Where would the sentence best fit?
解析：首先分析待插入的句子，涉及两个指代词，this和their, 根据这两个指代词则能够推出前文一定要讲到某些密度较低的行星（即their所指代的），并且前面还要给出密度低的原因（即this所指代的）。然后阅读段落，发现段落中首先提到行星构成成分的不同会导致密度的差异，然后讲到类地行星(terrestrial planets)主要由密度大的石头组成，然后提到类木行星(Jovian planets)是由大量的气体组成的，所以正确答案应是第四个黑方块的位置。
Paragraph 3: Film analysis of the infant'sresponses, heart and respiration rate monitors, and nonnutritive suckingdevices are used as effective tools in understanding infant perception. ■Film analysis permits researchers to carefullystudy the infant's responses over and over and in slow motion. ■Precise measurements can be made of the lengthand frequency of the infant's attention between two stimuli. ■Heart and respiration monitors provide theinvestigator with the number of heartbeats or breaths taken when a new stimulusis presented. ■Numericalincreases are used as quantifiable indicators of heightened interest in the newstimulus. Increases in nonnutritive sucking were first used as an assessment measureby researchers in 1969.
13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentencecould be added to the passage.
The repetition allows researchers to observe theinfant's behavior until they reach agreement about the presenceand the degree of the infant's response.
Where would the sentencebest fit?
解析：分析黑体句，找到线索词therepetition, 根据规则前文中应出现repetition这个信息，从第一个小黑方块前一句开始分析，发现第二个黑方块前面出现了…overand over and in slow motion, 识别出是repetition的同义改写，则答案即为第二个小黑方块位置。
The universal global warming at the end of the Ice Age haddramatic effects on temperate regions of Asia, Europe, and North America. Icesheets retreated and sea levels rose. ■The climatic changes in southwestern Asia weremore subtle, in that they involved shifts in mountain snow lines, rainfallpatterns, and vegetation cover. ■However, these same cycles of change hadmomentous impacts on the sparse human populations of the region. ■At the end of the Ice Age, no more than a few thousandforagers lived along the eastern Mediterranean coast, in the Jordan andEuphrates valleys. Within 2,000 years, the human population of the regionnumbered in the tens of thousands, all as a result of village life and farming.■Thanks to new environmental and archaeologicaldiscoveries, we now know something about this remarkable change in local life.
13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.
One of themajor effects was the rapid growth of the human population itself.
Where would the sentence best fit?
Click on a square [■] to insert the sentence in the passage.
解析：分析待插入的句子，可以找到线索词the major effects, 则推出前文中一定要提到effects或其同义替换，本题中还有一个后线索，后面的句子中应该要提到人口的迅速增长这个信息。阅读段落，发现these same cycles of change had momentousimpacts on the sparse human populations of the region中impacts即为effects的同义替换，并且第三个黑方块后面的两句话都在详细论述人口从最初的几千人增加到上万人，所以前后都符合线索词，则正确答案为第三个黑方块。
表示因果关系的信号词：therefore,thus, accordingly, consequently, hence, so, as a result等。
Paragraph 3: Another explanation for the focus on animalsmight be that these people sought to improve their luck at hunting. █Thistheory is suggested by evidence of chips in the painted figures, perhaps madeby spears thrown